• Русский
  • Українська
  • English
Tag: concept

Thinking With Concepts

Taking Our Students on a Journey to Personal Freedom

Concepts are to us like the air we breathe. They are everywhere. They are essential to our lives. But we rarely notice them. Yet only when we have conceptualized a thing in some way, only then, can we think about it. Nature does not give us, or anyone else, instructions in how things are to be conceptualized. We must create that conceptualization, alone or with others. Once conceptualized, a thing is integrated by us, into a network of ideas (since no concept or idea ever stands alone). We conceptualize things personally by means of our own ideas. We conceptualize things socially by means of the ideas of others (social groups). We explain one idea by means of other ideas. So if someone asked us to say what a “friend” is, we might say, as the Webster’s New World does, “a person whom one knows well and is fond of.” If that same person asked us to say what it means to “know someone well,” we would respond by introducing yet further ideas or concepts.

– Далее –


Content Is Thinking, Thinking is Content

A Foundation for The Logic of Teaching
Richard Paul and Linda Elder
March 22, 1999

The first and most important insight necessary for the appropriate design of instruction and curriculum is that content is, in the last analysis, nothing more nor less than a mode of thinking. Let me explain.

There are many ways to begin to grasp the profound truth that all content is nothing more nor less than a mode of thinking (about something), a way of figuring something out, a way of understanding something through thought. Here are just three ways of beginning to grasp this truth:

1) All “content” in school is content in a subject. All subjects are areas of study. All areas of study are “things” that we are interested in “figuring out”. – Далее –


How to develop your intellectual traits

Critical Thinkers Routinely Apply Intellectual Standards To The Elements Of Reasoning In Order To Develop Intellectual Traits

The original was taken here: Critical Thinkers Routinely Apply Intellectual Standards To The Elements Of Reasoning In Order To Develop Intellectual Traits


Critical Thinking Model

To Analyze Thinking We Must Identify and Question its Elemental Structures.

All Thinking Is Defined by the Eight Elements That Make It Up. Eight basic structures are present in all thinking: Whenever we think, we think for a purpose within a point of view based on assumptions leading to implications and consequences. We use concepts, ideas and theories to interpret data, facts, and experiences in order to answer questions, solve problems, and resolve issues.

Thinking, then:

  • generates purposes
  • raises questions
  • uses information
  • utilizes concepts
  • makes inferences
  • makes assumptions
  • generates implications
  • embodies a point of view

The original scheme can be found here: Critical Thinking Model – CriticalThinking.org


A Super-Streamlined Conception of Critical Thinking

Robert H. Ennis, 6/20/02

Assuming that critical thinking is reasonable reflective thinking focused on deciding what to believe or do, a critical thinker:

  1. Is open-minded and mindful of alternatives
  2. Tries to be well-informed
  3. Judges well the credibility of sources
  4. Identifies conclusions, reasons, and assumptions
  5. Judges well the quality of an argument, including the acceptability of its reasons, assumptions, and evidence
  6. Can well develop and defend a reasonable position
  7. Asks appropriate clarifying questions
  8. Formulates plausible hypotheses; plans experiments well
  9. Defines terms in a way appropriate for the context
  10. Draws conclusions when warranted, but with caution
  11. Integrates all items in this list when deciding what to believe or do

Original article: A Super-Streamlined Conception of Critical Thinking